EB-5投资中的积极管理要求,我能符合条件吗?| 律师观点

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随着排期日渐逼近,越来越多的家庭选择了让刚满18岁的子女作为主申请人。但是这里就会出来一个新的问题,对于EB-5直投项目,投资者必要参与到企业的“active engagement”(积极管理)之中,并且要担任决策职位。那么对于,那些尚在大学或者大学刚刚毕业的子女们,是否能满足积极管理的要求呢?今天,EB5Sir找来的是Vaughan de Kirby律师的文章。

对于适合的投资人来说,EB-5直接投资可能会非常有吸引力。这种方式使得投资人对于自己的投资款项如何被使用可以有更多的了解与信任,同时也使投资人获得管理企业的经验以及拓展企业的机会。

但从另一方面来说,作为一个外国人,在一个全新的国度管理企业可能会给您带来许多挑战。另外,许多EB-5投资人都是大学刚毕业便立即开始着手投资的,很有可能缺少管理企业的经验。跟这些挑战相关的问题包括:

在企业日常运营中我的参与度需要多高?
在管理企业时我可以寻求帮助吗?

也许您已经知道,EB-5直接投资签证中的一个要求就是投资者必须要在企业日常运营中进行积极的管理。所谓“积极的管理”是指投资者在企业中的身份必须是管理者或决策者。

USCIS(移民局)的官员在决定是否批准I-526申请时,对于“积极的管理”这项要求是否得到满足是拥有相当的自由度的。从USCIS的EB-5培训手册来看,对于一个成功的I-526申请来说,“积极的管理”这个要求实际上并没有其他要求那么重要。比如说,合法的资金来源、投资金额合格、处于风险状态和每人创造10个就业机会等。

企业形式

有意进行EB-5直接投资的投资人在决定企业形式时可以有不同选择。您所选择的企业形式将会对您如何进行积极的管理产生影响。一些企业形式将会允许您依靠专业人士在企业每日营运中得到帮助。

总的来说,企业可以有以下几种组成方式:普通合伙、有限合伙、公司或者有限责任公司等。

有限合伙

外国投资人把企业设置为有限合伙可能会使自己受益。在有限合伙中,投资人可以和其他有必要商业资历的个人合作。通过这种方式,投资人可以依靠商业合作伙伴的指导,自己在公司里承担一个稍微不用那么积极活跃的角色。您也许已经听说过有限合伙,大部分的区域中心都使用这个企业形式。

根据联邦法律条例8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(5)的规定,只要有限合伙合约提供申请人特定的权利与职责,而这些权利与职责是《统一有限合伙法》通常会赋予有限合伙人的,那么“积极的管理”这项要求就会被视为得到满足了。

值得重视的是,并没有要求规定投资人必须亲自实践这些权利。投资人只是拥有这些权利与特权就足以满足积极的管理这项要求。

公司

如果EB-5投资采用了公司的形式,则“积极的管理”这项要求可以通过投资者自己在公司的职位实现。投资者的职位必须要满足自身有权利加入每日运营及政策决定的过程。这样的职位包括:总裁、副总裁、CEO、CFO及执行副总裁等。

如果投资人打算依靠其他商业伙伴的专业知识,那可供选择的较好的职位包括总裁或者副总裁。这样投资人可以聘用有相关经历的人担任CEO、CFO等职位。在这样的安排下,投资人仍可以负责政策的制定和公司某些管理工作,而其他雇员则可以负责每日运营。

证明材料

为了获得您的EB-5签证,您需要在向USCIS提交I-526申请时同时提交其他文件。根据联邦法规,需要随I-526申请一起提交的文件包括:

* 投资人职位证明,包括职位名称和职责描述;
* 证明投资人“是一位企业领导或者企业董事会成员”,或者;
* 如果企业形式为有限合伙或普通合伙,证明投资人“参与直接管理与政策决策活动”。重申一下,只要有限合伙合约提供申请人《统一有限合伙法》赋予的特定权利与职责,那么“积极的管理”这项要求就被视为得到满足了。

原文作者:Vaughan de Kirby律师,原文网站:www.visaanswer.com。

Considering EB-5 Direct Investment, but don’t think you are qualified? Think again!

For the right investor, Direct Investment can be a very attractive EB-5 immigration option. It gives the investor the relative security of knowing and trusting the way their investment funds are being used. It also allows the investor to get hands on experience with running a business and a chance to develop their business portfolio.

But on the other hand, as a foreign national, you may encounter some challenges running a business in a new country. Additionally, many EB-5 investors are investing straight after graduating from university, and may have very little experience running a business. Questions that often stem from these challenges are:

How involved must I be in the daily operations of my business?
Can I get help running my business?

As you may already know, one of the requirements for a Direct Investment EB-5 visa is that the investor must be actively engaged in the daily operations of the company. So-called “active engagement” means that the investor must be in a position to exercise either managerial or policy-forming power in their business.
When deciding to grant or deny I-526 petitions, USCIS officers are given a great degree of leeway when determining whether “active involvement” has been satisfied. According to the USCIS EB-5 Training Manual, the “active involvement” requirement is actually less important to a successful I-526 petition than other requirements, such as “lawful source of funds, required amount of capital fully invested and at risk, and the creation of 10 jobs per alien.”

Structuring Your Business

Investors pursing the Direct Investment method of EB-5 may choose to structure their business in one of several ways. The business structure that you choose will have an effect on the way you will maintain active engagement. Some structures may actually allow you to get help with daily business operations, and to rely on the business expertise of others.

In general, businesses can take the form of a general partnership, limited partnership, corporation, or limited liability corporation (LLC), among others.
Limited Partnerships

Foreign investors may benefit from structuring their new company as a Limited Partnership. In a Limited Partnership, the investor may partner with an individual having the requisite business expertise. In this way, the investor can count on their business partner for guidance, and hold a slightly more passive role in the company. You may have heard of limited partnerships before, as most Regional Centers are set up in this structure.

According to the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically 8 C.F.R. § 204.6(j)(5), as long as “the limited partnership agreement provides the petitioner with certain rights, powers, and duties normally granted to limited partners under the Uniform Limited Partnership Act,” then the requirements of “active engagement” will be considered fulfilled.

It is important to note that there is no requirement for the investor to exercise or act on these rights in reality. That the investor merely has the required rights, powers, and privileges is in and of itself enough to satisfy the active engagement requirement.

Corporations

In the event that the EB-5 investment is set up as a Corporation, the “active management” requirement may be fulfilled through the investor’s position in the company. A professional position that is high enough such that he or she is involved in the day-to-day management or policy formation of the company will qualify. Sufficiently high positions include President, Vice President, CEO, CFO and Executive Vice President.

If the investor plans to rely on the business expertise of another individual, it may be preferable for the investor to hold the position of either President or Vice President and hire someone more experienced as the CEO, CFO, etc. Under such an arrangement, the investor will still be responsible for policy formation and some management of his or her company, while other employees will handle day-to-day operations.

Evidence

In order to obtain your EB-5 visa, you will need to submit certain documents to USCIS with your I-526 petition. According to the Code of Federal Regulations, the proof that must accompany your I-526 petition includes:

A statement of the position of the investor, including the position title and a description of the duties;
Evidence that the investor “is a corporate officer or a member of the corporate board of directors;” or
In cases of Limited or General Partnerships, evidence that the investor “is engaged in direct management or policy making activities.” Again, as long as the limited partnership agreement gives the investor the “rights, powers, and duties normally granted to limited partners under the Uniform Limited Partnership Act,” this will be considered sufficient engagement in the business.

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